Wednesday, January 4, 2017

Senior National Consultant for Digital Economy & Employment In Indonesia (ILO Indonesia)

Dear All,

ILO is looking for a suitable candidate as a Senior National Consultant with the following information:

Terms of Reference
Senior National Consultant
Digital Economy & Employment in Indonesia
International Labour Organization, Jakarta
1. Introduction
The Labour and Social Trends Report is a flagship report of ILO Office in Jakarta. Since 2008 ILO has been regularly publishing this report to stimulate and feed the national policy dialogue on economic development and employment.

Each report focuses on a specific theme to highlight a topical issue. Past themes have included productivity through decent work (2014-2015), role of decent work in equitable growth (2013), working for sustainable and equitable economy (2012), promoting job-rich growth in provinces (2011), translating economic growth into employment creation (2010), recovery and beyond through decent work (2009), and pathways to job-rich growth (2008).

In a middle-income country as large and diverse as Indonesia, policy makers have to constantly respond to the changes in the economy and the labour market. With the recent slowdown of the economy, job creation and poverty reduction is high on the national agenda. In this regard, the current government has undertaken several policy reforms with an objective of improving the investment climate and stimulating growth.

A total of 13 “Policy Packages” have been launched to address barriers for businesses to invest. Among others, infrastructure spending was prioritized to improve connectivity across the archipelago. Overall, there is recognition that Indonesia needs more private investment to absorb people who are entering the labour market and at the same time improve productivity.
 While the labour force participation has declined slightly, more and more young people are entering the labour force which is putting greater pressure on the labour market. The youth unemployment rate (17.9% in Feb 2016) and number of young people who are not working or studying youth is relatively high (21.8%)[1].

An important policy dimension that has been not been fully explored in the public discourse is the evolving nature of the economy and jobs as the Indonesian economy confronts the latest technological changes and environmental concerns. It is imperative that policy discourse should focus on these changes and effects it is likely to have on the job market as well as the movement of labour.

In light of above, “Youth Employment and changing face of the Indonesian economy” was chosen as the main theme for the ILO Labour and Social Trends Report, 2017. The report will look into the ongoing structural changes vis-à-vis technology and possible shift towards a greener economy and explore how this is and will affect jobs for young people. Focus will be on industries that are likely to lose jobs, those that will become engine of future job creation, and what government needs to do to prepare the workforce.
2. Scope of Work
ILO is seeking the services of a Senior Consultant to carry out research to look into the impact of digitization in the manufacturing, trade, and services. Recent trend suggests that in Indonesia the growth of jobs in the industrial sector has been slow. For example, in the last decade the number of jobs created in the services sector (14.2 million) was more than double the number of jobs created in the industry (7.1 million)[2].

Technological changes are no doubt changing the modes of production and creation of a whole range of new services. However, the adoption of new technologies is not necessarily a new phenomenon. The key driver of the industrial revolution was, in fact, technological improvements that, from 1760 to 1840, led to new manufacturing. Until then the global economy was primarily dependent on subsistence agriculture.

Technology has continued to play a pivotal role in improving productivity and sustaining economic growth. Increasing inputs in the production process eventually taper off at a certain point and this coincides with diminishing returns on additional inputs. The fact that global economy has continued to achieve relatively high level of growth is largely due to new and improved technology.

Technology has created opportunities and jobs for people in new industries and sectors. More recently, technological improvements have made it possible, for example, that people can now offer services- whether to rent their homes or offer rides as an alternative to other forms of public transport- through online platforms to create new steams of income. These development have spawned across many industries.

However, technological changes can also cause disruptions. Technological advances have meant that less labour is needed in the production of goods and services. Over the years, the use of machines in factories, automation, and digitization has made several occupations redundant. The process is likely to continue in future with rapid advances in artificial intelligence. Overall, technological changes in the production process can result in both job losses and new jobs.

Against this backdrop, it is expected the Senior Consultant will provide insights into the technological forces that are shaping the Indonesian economy and the job market. Specifically, the Senior Consultant will carry out a thorough literature review to crystallize trends and latest development in “digital economy”. In addition to this, he/she will collect evidence on the type of industries and occupations that have evolved as a direct result of increasing digitization. 

It is likely that evidence needed on Indonesia may not be readily available in the form of studies and lager surveys. Thus, the Senior Consultant needs to try and piece together information not only from official sources such as the Bureau of Statistics, but collect information, for analysis, from national government institutions, think-tanks, international organizations, universities and other research institutions.

Based on the research, he/she should prepare an annotated outline of the report highlighting key findings and conclusions. After receiving feedback from the ILO, the Senior Consultant can proceed to finalize the first draft of the report.
It is expected that he/she will present the findings at a forum that ILO will organize as part of consultations with key stakeholders. The Senior Consultant will report to the relevant ILO Programme Officer with day-to-day guidance and supervision provided by the ILO Economist based in Jakarta.
3. Tasks & Timelines
Number of days
General literature review and data analysis; draft an annotated outline of the report
Incorporate feedback from ILO and revise the annotated report outline 
Prepare first full draft report and submit for review
Incorporate changes based on inputs and resubmit the final draft report (around 30 pages excluding annexes)
Present main findings and conclusions of the report
Total Number of Work Days: 25
4. Required Qualifications
Advanced university degree in economics, business, development studies, or social sciences with demonstrated expertise in analysing employment, labour market, and economic sectors.
Minimum ten years’ of relevant experience. Previous experience conducting research and policy analysis, particularly in the area of economic development, employment, and sub-sectors assessments. Ability to conceptualize complex issues; excellent writing skills are essential.  
Excellent command of English and Bahasa Indonesia is required.
Interested candidates should email their resume to before Jan 10, 2017

[1] SAKERNAS, Feb 2016
[2]Analysis of trends and challenges in the Indonesian labour market, ADB Paper # 16

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